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Of the phosphorus contained in the body, 88% is localized in bone in the form of hydroxyapatite.Serum contains approximately 2.5 to 4.5 mg/dL of inorganic phosphate.Serum phosphate concentrations are dependent on dietary intake and regulation by hormones such as parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 1,25 vitamin D, and systemic acid base status .Hypophosphatemia may have 4 general causes: shift of phosphate from extracellular to intracellular, renal phosphate wasting, loss from the gastrointestinal tract, and loss from intracellular stores.Hyperphosphatemia is usually secondary to an inability of the kidneys to excrete phosphate and is common in patients with chronic kidney disease stage 4 or greater. Acute hyperphosphatemia can occur as a result of tissue breakdown such as rhabdomyolysis
Overnight fasting is preferred.