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Urea is the final degradation product of protein and amino acid metabolism Increased blood urea nitrogen (BUN) may be due to prerenal causes (cardiac decompensation, water depletion due to decreased intake and excessive loss, increased protein catabolism, and high protein diet), renal causes (acute glomerulonephritis, chronic nephritis, polycystic kidney disease, nephrosclerosis, and tubular necrosis), and postrenal causes (eg, all types of obstruction of the urinary tract, such as stones, enlarged prostate gland, tumors). The determination of serum BUN currently is the most widely used screening test for the evaluation of kidney function. The test is frequently requested along with the serum creatinine test since simultaneous determination of these 2 compounds appears to aid in the differential diagnosis of prerenal, renal and postrenal hyperuremia.
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