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KRAS somatic mutations are found in 30-40% of colorectal cancer (CRC). Seven mutations in codons 12 and 13 of KRAS (95% of the observed human mutations) preclude the efficacy of anti-EGFR therapy for the treatment of CRC. Assessment of KRAS mutational status has become a standard procedure in the management of patients with CRC. Technically, KRAS mutation testing can be performed with different methods, characterized by distinct sensitivities and specificities. Strategies that focus on early detection and prevention effectively decrease the risk of mortality associated with cancer. In addition, an increase in survival rate for individuals with advanced stage disease has been observed as a result of advancements in standard chemotherapeutic agents and the development of specialized targeted therapies. Monoclonal antibodies against epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), such as cetuximab and panitumumab, represent an area of targeted therapy for patients with colorectal and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This test uses DNA extracted from tumor tissue to evaluate for the presence of KRAS (G12A, G12C, G12D, G12R, G12S, G12V, G13D, Q61K, Q61L, Q61R, Q61H, and A146T) variants. A positive result indicates the presence of an activating KRAS mutation and can be a useful marker by which patients are selected for EGFR-targeted therapy.
Biopsy specimen / paraffin block required for this test.