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B-type natriuretic peptide (brain natriuretic peptide: BNP) is a small, ringed peptide secreted by the heart to regulate blood pressure and fluid balance.This peptide is stored in and secreted predominantly from membrane granules in the heart ventricles in a pro form (proBNP). Once released from the heart in response to ventricle volume expansion or pressure overload, the N-terminal (NT) piece of 76 amino acids (NT-proBNP) is rapidly cleaved by the enzymes corin and furin to release the active 32-amino acid peptide (BNP). Both BNP and NT-proBNP are markers of atrial and ventricular distension due to increased intracardiac pressure. The New York Heart Association (NYHA) developed a 4-stage functional classification system for congestive heart failure (CHF) based on the severity of the symptoms
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