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The renal juxtaglomerular apparatus generates renin, an enzyme that converts angiotensinogen to angiotensin I. The inactive angiotensin I is enzymatically converted to the active octapeptide angiotensin II, a potent vasopressor responsible for hypertension of renal origin. Angiotensin II also stimulates the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex to release aldosterone. Renin secretion by the kidney is stimulated by a fall in glomerular blood pressure, by decreased sodium concentration at the macula densa at the distal tubule, or by stimulation of sympathetic outflow to the kidney, such as in renal vascular diseases. Kidney disease, such as unilateral renal artery stenosis, results in elevated renin and aldosterone levels. Kidney venous catheterization may be helpful. A positive test is a renal venous renin ratio (affected:normal) above 1.5.
Two hours before the sample is taken, the patient should be mobile and erect. It is important to be aware of potential drug interactions. Potassium-wasting diuretics, such as Spironolactone, Eplerenone, Amiloride, and Triamterene, should be stopped for at