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During insulin secretion, C-peptide is enzymatically cleaved off and cosecreted in equimolar proportion with mature insulin molecules.In most disease conditions associated with abnormal serum insulin levels, the changes in serum C-peptide levels parallel insulin-related alterations (insulin to C-peptide molar ratio < or =1). Both serum C-peptide and serum insulin levels are elevated in renal failure and in disease states that lead to augmented primary endogenous insulin secretion (eg, insulinoma, sulfonylurea intoxication).Discordant serum insulin and serum C-peptide abnormalities are mainly observed in 2 situations: exogenous insulin administration and the presence of anti-insulin autoantibodies.
Overnight fasting is preferred.