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GAD65 antibody is also the major pancreatic islet antibody and an important serological marker of predisposition to type 1 diabetes. GAD65 autoantibody also serves as a marker of predisposition to other autoimmune disease that occur with type 1 diabetes, including thyroid disease (eg, thyrotoxicosis, Grave disease, Hashimoto thyroiditis, hypothyroidism), pernicious anemia, premature ovarian failure, Addison disease, (idiopathic adrenocortical failure) and vitiligo. GAD65 antibodies are found in the serum of approximately 8% of healthy subjects older than age 50, usually in low titer but often accompanied by related thyrogastric autoantibodies.
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