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SGPT & SGOT Test | Indications, Normal Ranges, & Procedure | Dr. B. Lal Lab

Knowing SGPT & SGOT Tests: Indications, Normal Ranges, & Procedures

Blood tests for the liver enzymes are among the most frequently performed diagnostic tests. These examinations can be used to evaluate liver damage or liver function. These fundamental tests are a first step in diagnosing liver damage as these tests help in measuring the secretion of specific liver enzymes in the blood. Proteins called enzymes are found all over the body and each one serves a specific purpose. Enzymes aid in the body's regular and essential chemical reactions by catalyzing them more quickly. 

Normally, the majority of these enzymes, especially aminotransferase or serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (AST or SGOT) and alanine aminotransferase or serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (ALT or SGPT), are synthesized in the liver cells. However, these enzymes are released into the bloodstream when the liver is damaged due to any cause. Aminotransferases ( (AST/SGOT and ALT/SGPT)) are among the most important and sensitive liver enzymes which indicate liver disease.

Acute and chronic liver diseases (CLDs) are becoming increasingly prevalent worldwide, impacting people's quality of life and sometimes leading to fatal complications. The significance of these tests lies in assessment of the state of the liver by knowing whether the SGPT or SGOT levels are in normal range or elevated. 

The liver is an essential organ that is involved in metabolism, detoxification, and nutrient storage. It is important to take care of your liver for your overall health. Keeping an eye on these enzyme levels facilitates liver health assessment, disease detection, and early intervention. 

What is the SGPT & SGOT Test?

Liver cells contain the enzymes serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT or ALT) and serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT or AST). Their bloodstream presence acts as a biomarker for liver damage.

SGOT and SGPT are released into the bloodstream in response to inflammation or damage to the liver cells. Keeping an eye on their levels aids in assessing the degree of inflammation or liver damage.

Several tissues, such as the liver, brain, pancreas, heart, kidneys, lungs, and skeletal muscles, contain SGOT. In case of any of these tissue damage, the blood will be exposed to SGOT. Although elevated SGOT levels may indicate tissue damage, the liver is not always the cause of the condition.

In contrast, the liver is the primary location of SGPT. While elevated SGPT levels are always cause for concern, they don't always indicate a major issue. A high SGPT level can be a sign of a mild to severe liver injury. Periodically, when you are sick or have an infection, your SGPT may go up. Long-term increases are more concerning because they could indicate a medical condition and a higher risk of liver damage.0

SGPT & SGOT testing can be prescribed in following conditions:

Excessive alcohol consumption
Acute viral hepatitis A and B
Obesity
Heart attack
Diabetes
Celiac disease (Autoimmune disorder)
Kidney disease
Hepatitis C
Gallbladder inflammation (cholecystitis)
Muscle injuries
Pancreatitis

Principle Behind SGPT & SGOT Test (SGOT/SGPT Ratio)

Although a high SGPT might appear to be enough for the diagnosis of liver disease, its correlation with SGOT can offer important insights into the nature of the condition. It will also indicate whether the problem is chronic (lasting for an extended period of time) or acute (arising suddenly and developing quickly).

An abrupt increase in the SGPT is anticipated in the event of an acute injury to the liver. Conversely, if liver disease advances slowly, the harm to the liver will eventually spread to other organs. The SGOT will start to increase as these organs sustain damage. This is the case with ailments such as hepatitis C.

The relationship between these enzymes is described using the SGOT/SGPT ratio. This is a calculation that compares the levels of SGOT and SGPT in your blood. Depending on which value is elevated and the amount of elevation, healthcare providers can often get a pretty strong indication as to what disease is involved.

SGPT & SGOT Test Preparation 

Prior to the blood sample collection, there is typically a period of fasting required for this test. This implies that for up to 12 hours prior to your arrival, you will be asked not to eat anything. Before the test, confirm from your doctor if you need to stop taking any medications.

SGPT & SGOT Test Procedure

  • Tests for liver function typically include measurement of the SGOT/SGPT levels. This is a simple blood test that can be performed at your doctor's office, a lab, or a hospital.
  • A band may be tied around your arm in order to increase blood flow and put pressure on your vein during a SGPT & SGOT test that requires a blood sample from a vein.
  • The site of blood collection will thoroughly be cleaned.
  • The blood sample will be collected from the vein in your elbow pit with a small needle.
  • You may experience slight discomfort or stinging sensation when the needle is inserted or removed. 
  • If your SGPT & SGOT test requires a fingerstick blood sample, then the lancet will be used to prick the tip of your finger.
  • The blood sample will be mixed with a specific ingredient that prevents the unwanted blood clotting in the sample. 
  • After that, the sample is stored inside a cartridge.

SGPT & SGOT Test Result Interpretation

Normal Ranges of SGPT & SGOT levels in adults are as follows:

  • SGPT: 4 to 36 U/L
  • SGOT: 8 to 33 U/L

SGOT/SGPT ratio results help in following interpretation: 

  • Ratio < 1 indicates non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
  • Ratio = 1 indicates acute viral hepatitis or drug-related liver toxicity
  • Ratio > 1 indicates cirrhosis
  • Ratio > 2:1 indicates alcoholic liver disease


Conclusion

The liver produces the liver enzymes SGPT and SGOT. A blood test can be used by doctors to check these levels. Elevated liver enzyme levels may indicate the presence of liver disease. The liver, brain, pancreas, heart, kidneys, lungs, and skeletal muscles are among the organs that contain SGOT. Liver is where SGPT is primarily present. Your SGOT levels may indicate a non-hepatic tissue injury if they are abnormally high. You might have a liver injury if your SGPT levels are high. It might also indicate that you have a transient illness or infection. Certain liver diseases can be diagnosed with the aid of the two enzyme ratios.

However, testing may be done on a regular basis if you have abnormal liver enzymes or exhibit the symptoms of liver tissue damage. Take control of your liver health right now. Get your SGPT & SGOT test done now.

Frequently Ask Questions

Q1: How long do SGOT and SGPT take to return to normal levels?

A: It typically takes two to four weeks for the levels of liver enzymes to naturally return to normal.

Q2: What causes an increase in levels in the SGPT test?

A: Excessive alcohol consumption, acute viral hepatitis A and B, obesity, heart attacks, diabetes, celiac disease, kidney disease, hepatitis C, gallbladder inflammation, muscle injuries, pancreatitis, etc. are a few conditions and diseases that can result in high SGPT/SGOT levels.
 

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